David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex. He was co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (shared with Roger W. Sperry), for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system. For much of his career, Hubel was the John Franklin Enders University Professor of Neurobiology at Harvard Medical School. In 1978, Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University.
The Hubel and Wiesel experiments greatly expanded the scientific knowledge of sensory processing. The partnership lasted over twenty years and became known as one of the most prominent research pairings in science.
Hubel and Wiesel received the Nobel Prize for two major contributions: firstly, their work on development of the visual system, which involved a description of ocular dominance columns in the 1960s and 1970s; and secondly, their work establishing a foundation for visual neurophysiology, describing how signals from the eye are processed by the brain to generate edge detectors, motion detectors, stereoscopic depth detectors and color detectors, building blocks of the visual scene.
Sir Peter Mansfield (born 9 October 1933), an English physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging MRI has a wide range of applications in medical diagnosis. MRI has an impact on diagnosis and treatment in many specialties. MRI is recommended in preference to CT when either modality could yield the same information.
Paul Christian Lauterbur (May 6, 1929 – March 27, 2007) an American chemist awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 for his work over the development of magnetic resonance imaging
Sir John Edward Sulston FRS (27 March 1942) is a British biologist. For his work on the cell lineage and genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, he was jointly awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physiologyor Medicine. One of Sulston’s most important contributions during his research years at the LMB was to elucidate the precise order in which cells in C. elegans divid
Howard Robert Horvitz (May 8, 1947) is an American biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate, best known for his research on the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans.
Sydney Brenner (13 January 1927) is a South African biologist and a 2002 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine laureate. Brenner made significant contributions to work on the genetic code,
and other areas of molecular biology. The title of his Nobel lecture “Nature’s Gift to Science,” is a homage to this modest nematod
Sir (Richard) Timothy Hunt, FRS FMedSci (born 19 February 1943 in Neston, Cheshire) is an English biochemist. He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Nurse and
Leland H. Hartwell for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells.
Cyclins are a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.
Sir Paul Maxime Nurse, (born 25 January 1949), is an English geneticist, President of the Royal Society
and Chief Executive and Director of the Francis Crick Institute. He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells in the cell cycle.
Leland Harrison (Lee) Hartwell (born October 30, 1939, in Los Angeles, California) is former president and director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle,
Washington. He shared the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Paul Nurse and R. Timothy Hunt, for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division (duplication) of cells
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells. In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotic), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission.
ARVID CARLSSON (born 25 January 1923) is a Swedish scientist who is best known for his work with theneurotransmitter dopamine and its effects in Parkinson’s disease. For his work on dopamine, Carlsson was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000, along with co-recipients Eric Kandel and Paul Greengard.
Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone andneurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA.
Eric Richard Kandel (born November 7, 1929) is an American neuropsychiatrist. He was a recipient of the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research on the physiological basis of memory storage in neurons. He shared the prize with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard.
Kandel, who had studied psychoanalysis, wanted to understand how memory works. His mentor, Harry Grundfest, said, “If you want to understand the brain you’re going to have to take a reductionist approach, one cell at a time.” So Kandel studied the neural system of the sea slug Aplysia californica, which has large nerve cells amenable to experimental manipulation and is a member of the simplest group of animals known to be capable of learning.
Memory is the process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Encoding allows information from the outside world to reach the five senses in the forms of chemical and physical stimuli. In this first stage the information must be changed so that it may be put into the encoding process. Storage is the second memory stage or process. This entails that information is maintained over periods of time. Finally the third process is the retrieval of information that has been stored. Such information must be located and returned to the consciousness. Some retrieval attempts may be effortless due to the type of information, and other attempts to remember stored information may be more demanding for various reasons.
Paul Greengard (born December 11, 1925) is an American neuroscientist best known for his work on the molecular and cellular function of neurons. In 2000, Greengard, Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in thenervous system. He is currently Vincent Astor Professor at Rockefeller University, and serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of the Cure Alzheimer’s Fund. He is married to artist Ursula von Rydingsvard.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that transmit signals across a synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another ‘target’ neuron. Neurotransmitters are released from synaptic vesicles in synapses into thesynaptic cleft, where they are received by receptors on other synapses. Many neurotransmitters are synthesized from plentiful and simple precursors such as amino acids, which are readily available from the diet and only require a small number of biosynthetic steps to convert them. Neurotransmitters play a major role in shaping everyday life and functions. Their exact numbers are unknown but more than 100 chemical messengers have been identified.